Conventional Antifungals for Invasive Infections Delivered by Unconventional Methods; Aerosols, Irrigants, Directed Injections and Impregnated Cement

The administration of approved antifungals via unapproved formulations or administration routes (such as aerosol, direct injection, irrigation, topical formulation and antifungal-impregnated orthopedic beads or cement) may be resorted to in an attempt to optimize drug exposure while minimizing toxicities and/or drug interactions associated with conventional (systemic) administrations. Existing data regarding such administrations are mostly restricted to uncontrolled case reports of patients with diseases refractory to conventional therapies. Attribution of efficacy and tolerability is most often problematic. This review updates prior published summaries, reflecting the most recent data and its application by available prevention and treatment guidelines for invasive fungal infections. Of the various dosage forms and antifungals, perhaps none is more widely reported than the application of amphotericin B-containing aerosols for the prevention of invasive mold infections (notably Aspergillus spp.).

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